b'Take it from an expert,use quality tools.Make sure you are 100% correct on identification before removal. Dont let unwanted plants go to seed. Repeated efforts may be needed to completely eliminate. Organic control for perennials means killing the plant roots. Annuals may be reduced by keeping them from producing seeds (babies) until killing frost or chopping just below the root crown. Pick up and properly dispose alien seedheads. Soil can be full of dormant weed seeds, especially if the land was ever a farm field. Be aware, digging soil or disturbing the surface can bring up more weed seeds. New native plantings will eventually populate top layers of the soil with their seeds. Understanding the reproductive cycles and vegetative growth habits of targeted aliens will guide maintenance decisions. Hand tools are most effective on annual plants. Young seedling perennials are easy to chop before roots establish. Perennials cut above ground will come back. Most perennial plants sprout back from the rhizomes, stolons, tubers, and buds at or below the surface. Make sure you get root system of these plants. Be aware, in the Blank Slate phase of control, there is an associated risk of erosion by leaving bare ground for extended periods of time.photo by Theresa DiMenno84n ativEa MEricanS EEd 800 728 4043'